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International Banking by Tarun Natarajan

International banking is a complicated system that comprises of multiple structural subgroups, each of which performs a specific role. This study will be on the unique characteristics of international banks and the wide range of duties they perform.

INTRODUCTION

In general, the world banking system is separated into two categories: domestic and international banks. International banking is a complicated system that comprises of multiple structural subgroups, each of which performs a specific role. The focus of this study will be on the unique characteristics of international banks and the wide range of duties they perform. To begin, the foreign banking system will now be contrasted to the domestic banking system in order to identify the major contrasts. In addition, the organisation of global financial markets, as well as the spectrum of instruments traded there, will be explored. Furthermore, the many types of exchange rate exposure that multinational firms confront will be examined in order to recognize and quantify the risks involved.


CONTRASTS BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC BANKS

The main contrasts between international and domestic banks must be identified. They set themselves out from the competition in terms of customer service. To begin with, "international banks organise trade finance for their customers to permit imports and exports," but "local banks provide just for cross-border business." Second, international banks provide for foreign exchange, which is necessary for cross-border transactions and investments, but domestic banks do not offer this service.


Another distinction is the types of deposits that banks accept, as well as the loans and assets that they make. While domestic banks conduct business in the local currency, the bulk of international banking institutions borrow money and lend money in the Eurocurrency market, which comprises of deposits held in banks located outside of the countries that issue the currency in which the deposits is held. Internal banks are also governed by laws of the state in that they are located, but global banks are governed by the laws of both their home country and the countries where their branches are located.


UNITED STATES' USE OF INTERNATIONAL BANKS

The grounds on which the USA uses international banks can easily be defined based on the aforementioned disparities. For starters, foreign banks facilitate global transactions and investments, which is critical for the majority of businesspeople. Second, people traveling to foreign countries frequently use the branches of multinational banks. Another important issue would be that the international banking program enables the United States government to invest in the world market and grow as a country. Furthermore, international banks meet the needs of multinational organisations by lending big sums of money while posing fewer risks.


INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM STRUCTURE

As previously stated, the international financial system's structure is extremely complicated, as evidenced by the many different types of international markets. They include the previously mentioned Eurocurrency market (mainly Eurodollars), this same international bond market (which includes foreign securities, Eurobonds, global bonds, equity-related, and dual currency international bonds), and the international stock markets. The Eurocurrency market operates on an interbank level, and so it runs concurrently with the financial institutions of the countries that formed the currency. The foreign bond market offers bonds to foreign investors, with the primary distinction being the currency with which they have been denominated. The instruments are typically portrayed as debt or equity, with the other reflecting a share of the responsibility or ownership.


International banks as well as international financing syndicates offer enormous sums of money to multinational firms, as previously stated. These funds are used for their own economic and social development, project funding, and investment. However, the foreign exchange process is frequently vulnerable to a number of negative impacts that might result in a variety of negative outcomes, including default. To put it another way, international exchange exposure occurs when the value of a company's future cash flows is determined by the value of foreign currencies.


Multinational firms' performance is heavily reliant on transactions and investments conducted outside of the native financial system due to their nature. Multinational firms are exposed to several hazards due to the fluctuation of exchange rates. There are several ways for evaluating those odds, the most famous of which is the Moody's creditworthiness rating model. This concept allows multinational firms and international lending syndicates to foresee possible negative outcomes and avoid losses.



CONCLUSION

This paper provides a basic overview of the international financial system. First, the contrasts between domestic and international banks were examined, and the United States' the use of international banks was outlined based on the findings. The architecture of the world economy was also taken into account in order to represent the complex nature of its parts in a concise manner. It is also clear that the international financial network is influenced by a wide range of factors. Those elements, which indicate difficulties relating to foreign exchange exposure, were also described. Finally, it is critical to note that international banking is amongst the most often used economic vehicles.