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The Relationship between Finance and Economies by Veer Sharma

Studying the system interactions and linkages between banking, finance and governance.


Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that focuses on the study of the economy as a whole, rather than on individual markets or specific economic agents. It deals with the behavior, performance, structure, and decision-making of an entire economy, encompassing factors such as aggregate output, employment, inflation, economic growth, and the interactions between different sectors.

Key areas of focus in macroeconomics include:

A)   Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Macroeconomists analyze the total value of goods and services produced within a country over a specific period. GDP is a fundamental measure of economic activity and is used to gauge the overall health and size of an economy.


B)   Unemployment: Macroeconomics examines the level of unemployment in an economy and seeks to understand its causes and consequences. It addresses questions about how changes in economic conditions impact the job market and labor force participation.


C)   Inflation: Macroeconomists study changes in the general price level of goods and services, known as inflation. They explore its causes, effects, and potential policy measures to control inflation and ensure price stability.


D)   Economic Growth: Understanding the factors that contribute to sustained economic growth is a central concern in macroeconomics. This involves analyzing productivity, technological advancements, investment, and other factors that influence an economy's capacity to expand over time.


E)    Fiscal and Monetary Policy: Macroeconomists assess the impact of government policies on the economy, such as fiscal policies (government spending and taxation) and monetary policies (central bank actions like interest rate adjustments and money supply management). They study how these policies can be used to influence economic performance and stability.


F)    International Trade and Finance: Macroeconomics also explores the interactions between economies on a global scale. It delves into topics like exchange rates, trade imbalances, and the impact of international economic events on a country's domestic economy.


G)   Business Cycles: Macroeconomists analyze the cyclical fluctuations in economic activity known as business cycles. These cycles consist of periods of economic expansion (boom) and contraction (recession), and understanding their causes and dynamics is a key focus of macroeconomic research.


In essence, macroeconomics provides insights into how economic systems function as a whole, how they respond to external shocks and policy changes, and how government actions can impact overall economic well-being. It helps policymakers, economists, and businesses make informed decisions to manage and improve economic conditions at the national and international levels.



Microeconomics is a branch of economics that focuses on the study of individual economic units and their behavior within markets. It examines the interactions between households, firms, consumers, and producers at a smaller, more localized level, as opposed to the broader perspective of macroeconomics, which looks at the economy as a whole.


Key areas of focus in microeconomics include:


A)   Supply and Demand: Microeconomics analyzes how individual buyers and sellers interact in various markets. The concept of supply and demand is central to this analysis, as it explains how prices are determined based on the interaction between consumer demand and producer supply.


B)   Consumer Behavior: Microeconomists study how consumers make choices about purchasing goods and services. They examine factors such as individual preferences, utility, and budget constraints to understand how consumers maximize their satisfaction (utility) given their limited resources.


C)   Producer Behavior: Microeconomics also looks at how firms make decisions about production and pricing. It explores concepts like production costs, profit maximization, and market structure (e.g., perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly) to understand how firms operate in different competitive environments.


D)   Market Structures: Microeconomics categorizes markets based on the number of sellers and buyers, their influence over price, and the nature of the goods being traded. Different market structures have distinct implications for pricing, competition, and efficiency.


E)    Resource Allocation: Microeconomics examines how scarce resources are allocated among competing uses. It delves into topics like opportunity cost, production efficiency, and factors of production (land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship) to understand how resources are utilized to produce goods and services.


F)    Welfare Economics: Microeconomists assess the overall welfare or well-being of society by analyzing the efficiency and equity implications of market outcomes. Concepts like consumer surplus, producer surplus, and market equilibrium are used to evaluate the desirability of various economic situations.


G)   Externalities and Market Failures: Microeconomics addresses situations where markets do not achieve efficient outcomes due to factors like external costs or benefits (externalities), public goods, and imperfect information. It explores how government intervention or policy measures might be necessary to address these market failures.


In summary, microeconomics provides insights into the behavior of individual economic agents and their interactions within markets. It helps to understand how prices are determined, how consumers and producers make choices, and how resources are allocated in various economic settings. Microeconomic analysis is essential for making informed decisions about resource allocation, market regulation, and understanding the intricacies of specific economic activities.

Financial Systems

A financial system is a set of institutions, such as banks, insurance companies, and stock exchanges, that permit the exchange of funds. Financial systems exist on firm, regional, and global levels. Borrowers, lenders, and investors exchange current funds to finance projects, either for consumption or productive investments, and to pursue a return on their financial assets. The financial system also includes sets of rules and practices that borrowers and lenders use to decide which projects get financed, who finances projects, and terms of financial deals.

There are four components of Financial Systems – 

A)   Financial institutions - Financial institutions play a significant role in bringing together lenders and borrowers. This is done by using various financial instruments and services, all of which contribute to an efficient financial system. The financial institution is one of the main components which ensure liquidity in the financial system through the development of credit and other liquid assets.


B)   Financial services - Financial services include credit rating agencies, mutual funds, pension funds, venture capital, and other institutions that are part of the financial system. Financial services are an important component of the financial system due to their specific tasks.


C)   Financial markets -  A financial market is where both the creation of new financial assets and the trading of existing ones occur. Financial markets move funds from savers to borrowers much more efficiently and ensure that there is always liquidity.


D)   Financial instruments - Financial instruments are another main component of the financial system. Financial instruments are papers that entitle the buyer to future income from the seller. That's because there are different needs between investors and those looking for credit.


Risk Management

What is Risk Management?

Risk management involves identifying, analyzing, and accepting or mitigating uncertainty in investment decisions. Put simply, it is the process of monitoring and dealing with the financial risks associated with investing. Risk management essentially occurs when an investor or fund manager analyzes and attempts to quantify the potential for losses in an investment, such as a moral hazard, and then takes the appropriate action (or inaction) to meet their objectives and risk tolerance.

Importance of Risk Management?

If an unforeseen event catches your organization unaware, the impact could be minor, such as a small impact on your overhead costs. In a worst-case scenario, though, it could be catastrophic and have serious ramifications, such as a significant financial burden or even the closure of your business.


To reduce risk, an organization needs to apply resources to minimize, monitor and control the impact of negative events while maximizing positive events. A consistent, systemic and integrated approach to risk management can help determine how best to identify, manage and mitigate significant risks.

Process of Risk Management:

A)   Identifying risks - 

Risk identification is the process of identifying and assessing threats to an organization, its operations and its workforce. For example, risk identification may include assessing IT security threats such as malware and ransomware, accidents, natural disasters and other potentially harmful events that could disrupt business operations.

B)   Risk analysis and assessment - 

Risk analysis involves establishing the probability that a risk event might occur and the potential outcome of each event. Risk evaluation compares the magnitude of each risk and ranks them according to prominence and consequence.

C)   Risk mitigation and monitoring - 

Risk mitigation refers to the process of planning and developing methods and options to reduce threats to project objectives. A project team might implement risk mitigation strategies to identify, monitor and evaluate risks and consequences inherent to completing a specific project, such as new product creation. Risk mitigation also includes the actions put into place to deal with issues and effects of those issues regarding a project.


International Banking

International banking refers to the financial services and activities that involve transactions and operations across national borders. It involves the movement of funds, assets, and capital between individuals, businesses, and institutions in different countries. International banking plays a crucial role in facilitating global trade, investment, and economic activities.


Features of International Banking – 

A)   Flexibility: This banking facility provides flexibility to multinational companies to deal in multiple currencies. The major currencies that multinational companies or individuals can deal with include the euro, dollar, pounds, sterling, and rupee. The companies with headquarters in other countries can manage their bank accounts and avail of financial services in other countries through this banking without any hassle.


B)   Accessibility: International banking provides accessibility and ease of doing business to companies from different countries. An individual or MNC can use their money anywhere around the world. This gives them the freedom to transact and use their money to meet any funds requirement in any part of the world.


C)   International Bank Transfers/Transaction: International banking allows the business to make international bill payments. The currency conversion facility allows the companies to pay and receive money easily. Also, benefits like overdraft facilities, loans, deposits, etc., are available every time for overseas transactions. Correspondent banking is very useful in such transactions.


D)   Accounts Maintenance: A multinational company can maintain the records of global accounts in a fair manner with the help of international banking. All the company’s transactions are recorded in the books of banks across the globe. By compiling the data and figures, the company’s accounts can be maintained.


Investment Finance

Investment finance refers to the allocation of funds or capital with the goal of generating returns or profits over a certain period of time. It involves the strategic deployment of financial resources into various assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, mutual funds, and other financial instruments, with the expectation of earning income or achieving capital appreciation.

Objectives of Investment Finance – 

A)   Wealth Accumulation: Individuals, businesses, and institutions invest their funds to grow their wealth over time. This can be achieved through capital gains (increase in the value of the invested assets) and/or income generated from dividends, interest, or rental payments.


B)   Capital Preservation: Some investments focus on preserving the initial capital while generating modest returns. These are often considered lower-risk investments, such as government bonds or certain types of savings accounts.


C)   Risk and Return Trade-Off: Investment finance involves assessing and managing the trade-off between risk and potential return. Generally, investments with higher potential returns are associated with higher levels of risk.


D)   Diversification: A key principle of investment finance is diversifying the investment portfolio across different asset classes and geographic regions to reduce risk. Diversification helps mitigate the impact of poor performance in any one investment.

Corporate Finance

Corporate finance refers to the financial activities and decisions made by corporations or businesses to manage their financial resources, optimize their capital structure, and make strategic financial decisions that maximize shareholder value. It involves a wide range of activities that revolve around obtaining and using funds effectively to achieve the company's goals and objectives.

Objectives of Corporate Finance – 

A)   Maximizing Shareholder Value: One of the primary objectives of corporate finance is to enhance the wealth of the company's shareholders. This involves making financial decisions that result in increasing the stock price, dividends, and overall returns for shareholders.


B)   Profitability: Corporate finance aims to generate sustainable profits by effectively managing the company's investments, operations, and expenses. Profitability ensures the company's ability to cover costs, fund growth, and provide returns to shareholders.


C)   Long-Term Growth: Companies strive for continuous growth and expansion to increase their market share, revenue, and profits. Corporate finance supports this objective by allocating resources to strategic investments and projects that contribute to the company's long-term success.


D)  Efficient Allocation of Resources: Effective corporate finance involves allocating financial resources, such as capital and investments, to projects and initiatives that offer the highest potential return. This ensures that resources are used efficiently and generate maximum value.

Difference Between Investment and Corporate Finance – 

History of Money 

What is Money?

Money doesn't always have value whether it's represented by a seashell, a metal coin, a piece of paper, or a string of code mined electronically by a computer. Money allows people to trade goods and services indirectly. It helps communicate the price of goods and provides individuals with a way to store their wealth. It is valuable as a unit of account—a socially accepted standard by which things are priced and with which payment is accepted.

Throughout history, the concept of money has evolved from barter systems to complex financial instruments. Early societies traded goods directly, but as trade expanded, various commodities, such as shells, grain, and metals, were used as mediums of exchange. Metal objects eventually emerged as standardized forms of money, with ancient civilizations like the Greeks and Romans using coins. As economies grew, paper money emerged, initially representing promises to redeem precious metals.

In the modern era, governments and central banks took control of money issuance. The gold standard linked currency values to a specific amount of gold, fostering global trade. The 20th century saw the transition to fiat money, backed by governments' legal tender and trust. The rise of electronic banking led to digital money, revolutionizing transactions.

Today, cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin, introduce decentralized and digital forms of money, challenging traditional financial systems. The history of money reflects humanity's quest for efficient and trusted mediums of exchange to facilitate trade and economic progress.


Corporate Governance 

Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices, and processes by which a firm is directed and controlled. Corporate governance essentially involves balancing the interests of a company's many stakeholders, such as shareholders, senior management executives, customers, suppliers, financiers, the government, and the community.

Since corporate governance provides the framework for attaining a company's objectives, it encompasses practically every sphere of management, from action plans and internal controls to performance measurement and corporate disclosure.


Benefits of Corporate Governance – 

A)   Good corporate governance creates transparent rules and controls, provides guidance to leadership, and aligns the interests of shareholders, directors, management, and employees.

B)   It helps build trust with investors, the community, and public officials.

C)   Corporate governance can provide investors and stakeholders with a clear idea of a company's direction and business integrity.

D)   It promotes long-term financial viability, opportunity, and returns.


Principles of Corporate Governance – 

  • Fairness: The board of directors must treat shareholders, employees, vendors, and communities fairly and with equal consideration.

  • Transparency: The board should provide timely, accurate, and clear information about such things as financial performance, conflicts of interest, and risks to shareholders and other stakeholders.

  • Responsibility: The board is responsible for the oversight of corporate matters and management activities. It must be aware of and support the successful, ongoing performance of the company. Part of its responsibility is to recruit and hire a CEO. It must act in the best interests of a company and its investors.

  • Accountability : The board must explain the purpose of a company's activities and the results of its conduct. It and company leadership are accountable for the assessment of a company's capacity, potential, and performance. It must communicate issues of importance to shareholders.

Entrepreneurial Finance

Entrepreneurial finance refers to the specific area of finance that deals with the financial decisions, strategies, and challenges faced by entrepreneurs, startups, and small business owners. It focuses on the unique financial needs and opportunities that arise when individuals or groups launch new ventures or seek to grow and scale their businesses.

The key aspects of Entrepreneurial Finance are – 

A)   Startup Funding: Entrepreneurs often need capital to turn their innovative ideas into viable businesses. Entrepreneurial finance involves identifying and securing funding from various sources, including personal savings, family and friends, angel investors, venture capital, and crowdfunding.

B)   Business Valuation: Determining the value of a startup or small business is crucial for attracting investors, negotiating equity stakes, and making informed financial decisions. Valuation methods specific to startups and early-stage companies are used.

C)   Capital Structure: Deciding on the mix of equity and debt financing is important for entrepreneurs. Balancing financial risk and ownership control is a key consideration in determining the optimal capital structure.

D)   Bootstrapping: Many startups begin with limited resources and use creative strategies to operate and grow without external funding. Entrepreneurial finance includes effective bootstrapping techniques to stretch resources and minimize cash burn.

E)    Risk Management: Entrepreneurs face various financial risks, including market risks, technological risks, and regulatory risks. Managing and mitigating these risks is an integral part of entrepreneurial finance.

F)    Financial Planning: Developing a comprehensive financial plan that outlines revenue projections, expenses, and growth strategies is essential for startup success. Entrepreneurs use financial planning to guide their operations and secure funding.









6.    Frank ISC Economics standard 12

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